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Indigenous Peoples

This section of the Canada Social Report focuses on the well-being of indigenous and northern communities. 

COMMUNITY Community (Photo of a map)
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
First Nation Profiles
The First Nation Profiles is a collection of information that describes individual First Nation communities across Canada. The profiles include general information on a First Nation along with more detailed information about its reserve(s), governance, federal funding, geography, registered population statistics and various Census statistics.
Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance
Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance provides data users with a thematic guide to Aboriginal data at Statistics Canada. It includes data for the First Nations (North American Indian), Métis, and Inuit populations. Each theme is illustrated with a chart presenting key indicators, a plain language definition of the indicator and links to related data tables and published articles to further assist users in meeting their data needs. Data sources include the 1996, 2001 and 2006 censuses of population, the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, and the 2007/2008 Adult Correctional Services Survey.
Urban Aboriginal Peoples Study
The Urban Aboriginal Peoples Study (UAPS) is an innovative research study conducted with First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples living in Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Regina, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Montreal, Halifax and Ottawa (Inuit only). It seeks to better understand and document the identities, experiences, values and aspirations of urban Aboriginal Canadians. The study also included a survey with non-Aboriginal Canadians in these cities, to measure their awareness and perceptions of their Aboriginal neighbours. The UAPS was conducted by Environics Institute for Survey Research. Established in 2006, the Institute sponsors relevant and original public opinion and social values research related to issues of public policy and social change. For more information on The Urban Aboriginal Peoples Study, including reports, data tables and video interview with survey participants, see
Poverty or Prosperity Indigenous Children in Canada
June 2013
David Macdonald and Daniel Wilson
Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
Based on data from the 2006 census, this study disaggregates child poverty statistics and identifies three tiers of poverty for children in Canada. In particular, it finds that Indigenous children in Canada are over two and a half times more likely to live in poverty than non-Indigenous children. According to the report, Indigenous children trail the rest of Canada’s children on practically every measure of wellbeing: family income, educational attainment, crowding and homelessness, poor water quality, infant mortality, health and suicide. - See more at:
EDUCATION Education (Photo of a family)
Closing the Aboriginal Educational Gap in Canada:
Assessing Progress and Estimating the Economic Benefits

June 2015
Matthew Calver
Centre for the Study of Living Standards
This report has two major goals: The first is to assess progress on the gaps in educational attainment and labour market outcomes between 2001 and 2011 and the consequences of any progress (or lack thereof) for the Canadian economy. The second goal is to produce updated estimates of the benefits of eliminating the educational attainment gap. Utilizing projections of the Aboriginal population in 2031 and data from the 2011 National Household survey, the author estimates the effects of closing the educational attainment gap on Aboriginal labour market outcomes and national economic performance.
Literacy Matters: Unlocking the Literacy Potential of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada
June 2013
TD Economics

Image courtesy of Ampa a Win
Avoidable mortality among First Nations adults in Canada: A cohort analysis
August 2015
Statistics Canada Health Report
Diabetes in Canada: Facts and figures from a public health perspective
Chapter 6 – Diabetes among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis populations
Public Health Agency of Canada
Image courtesy of Ampa a Win
CMHC – About First Nations Housing
CMHC works in partnership with First Nation communities, through its housing programs and capacity development initiatives, to help them attain their housing goals and improve their overall living conditions. Annually, through CMHC and Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC), the Government spends an estimated $298 million to support the housing needs of First Nations on-reserve. Of this amount, $152 million is provided by CMHC.
CMHC – Aboriginal Housing Conditions
Tables display a selection of CMHC’s Census- and NHS-based housing indicators and data for Aboriginal households living outside reserves and on-reserve. They include information on whether households live in dwellings that meet CMHC’s housing standards and, for households living outside reserves, whether they are in core housing need.
Improving access to capital for Canada's First Nation communities
February 2016
Public Policy Forum
This report synthesizes the findings of the Public Policy Forum's 2015 roundtable series on access to capital for First Nation people in Canada. It points to practical reforms that could form the basis of a First Nations investment action plan.
Benchmarking Métis Economic and Social Development
July 2015
Jasmin Thomas
Centre for the Study of Living Standards
The author draws on the framework developed by the National Aboriginal Economic Development Board to provide information on the extent to which Métis in Canada are participating in the economy and in society compared with non-Aboriginal Canadians.
Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011
June 2012
Centre for the Study of Living Standards
This report examines Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011.

Please send us links to other relevant documents and websites.

The Caledon Institute of Social Policy